Musculoskeletal injuries represent a large proportion of all trauma in sports medicine and account for 10% to 55% of all permanent injuries. An unsuccessful treatment should be treated with necessary precautions, as it can delay an athlete’s return to the field for weeks or even months and increase the risk of re-injury.
Types of Musculoskeletal Injuries
Muscle injuries; In the literature, they can be generally classified as traumatic (acute) or overuse (chronic) injuries.
- Acute injuries are usually the result of a single traumatic event and also cause macro trauma to the muscle. It is mostly seen in contact sports such as rugby, football, and basketball because of dynamic and high collisions.
- Overuse, chronic or exercise-related injuries occur over a longer period of time. They result from repetitive micro trauma to the muscles. Diagnosis is more difficult because there is a less obvious link between the cause of the injury and symptoms.
The tension that occurs in the muscle or muscle tendon is a contraction injury in which muscle fibers are torn due to excessive mechanical stress. This is mostly the result of a strong eccentric contraction or overstretching of the muscle. Muscles will most likely be torn during rapid acceleration or deceleration. Therefore, it is a typical problem for non-contact sports with dynamic character such as sprinting and jumping.
Stresses fall into 3 categories
- Slight Degree
It contains a small number of muscle fibers.
Although there is no reduction in strength, it has full active and passive range of motion.
Localized pain can be seen
Pain and tenderness are usually delayed to the next day.
- Medium Degree
Contains a significant number of torn muscle fibers
Acute and pronounced pain is accompanied by swelling
Pain is amplified by muscle contraction
Movement is limited by pain.
Complete rupture / rupture of the muscle. This means that either the tendon is detached from the muscle body or the muscle body is actually ruptured in 2 parts.
Severe swelling and pain and a complete loss of function are characteristic of such strains.
This is most common at the musculotendinous junction.
Even a slight stretch can make an athlete’s muscles feel stiff and painful, but they can still walk and run (although a little uncomfortable). This type of muscle tension, defined by small tears in the muscle, can result from overuse or lack of fitness. This condition usually only takes 1-2 weeks for recovery.
On the contrary, severe muscle tension can occur, characterized by sudden complete rupture of the muscle. The injury can be quite painful, and swelling and bruising may occur immediately after the injury. It may take months for a person with severe muscle tension to walk normally and recover.
Causes of Musculoskeletal Injury
- Insufficient warm-up movements
- Insufficient range of motion
- Excessive muscle tension
- Fatigue / overuse / poor recovery
- Muscle imbalance
- Previous injuries
- Wrong technique / biomechanics
- Spinal dysfunction
The most common musculoskeletal injuries
- Knee Pain
- Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome
- Iliotibial (ITB) Band Syndrome
- Patellar Tendinitis
- Knee Osteoarthritis
- Ankle and Heel Pain
- Achilles Tendinitis
- Heel (Retrocalcaneal) Bursitis
- Haglund Syndrome
- Ankle Sprain
- Plantar Fasciitis
- Morton’s Neuroma
- Stress Fracture
- Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome (shin splints)
- Tibia Stress Fracture
- Receding Calf Muscle (Gastrocnemius Muscle)
- Chronic Compartment Syndrome (Anterior Sompartman Syndrome)
- Hip And Thigh Pain
- Large Trochanteric Bursitis (Hip Bursitis)
- Stress Fracture of the Hip
- Injury to the Hip and Thigh Muscles
- Gluteus Medius Muscle
- Hamstring Muscles
- Groin muscles
- Back and Waist Pain
- Spine Injury
- Herniated Disc
- Degenerated Disc
- Spine Fracture (Compression fracture)
What is cramp? It is called cramp when the muscles contract, which occurs involuntarily, suddenly and causes severe pain in the muscular system. Cramp, which is seen as a common muscle spasm, may be a sign of some deficiencies in our body. It usually occurs in the arms, back and legs. In some cases, it may cause us to wake up from sleep at night, which can significantly affect our quality of life.
What Causes Cramps?
Many reasons can trigger muscle cramps, and we can list the main causes of cramps as follows.
Potassium, sodium and Calcium deficiency
Dehydration of the body
Magnesium and vitamin B deficiency
Poor blood circulation in the legs
Excessive leg training
Excessive alcohol consumption
Cramp spasms can last for a few minutes, so try not to panic, never apply urban legends such as pricking the cramp in the area with a needle or cutting tools. Stretch and massage the cramped area thoroughly and rub the area and rest the area by ending the activity. After stretching the contracted area, let the muscles relax by applying hot or cold.
First Treatment in Sports Injuries
Treatment of Sports Injuries within the First 24 to 72 Hours; Intervention with the first treatment method in sports injuries is the most effective method to prevent the injury from progressing to an advanced level. Current medical research does not firmly support any specific treatment regimen, but most medical professionals and textbooks agree that initial treatment for mild to moderate injuries should be guided by the RICE or PRICE protocol – Protection, Rest, Ice, Compression, and Height. These principles have formed the basis of acute sports and exercise injury management for decades.
P: (Protection); The first principle is protection. The purpose of the protection is to protect the injured area and prevent further advancement of the area. For example, an injured ankle or foot can be protected by limiting or preventing weight-bearing through the use of crutches, a cane or walking sticks. Partially immobilizing the injured area using a sling, splint, or belt can also be a means of protection.
R: (Rest); The purpose of rest is to allow the body’s own healing processes to occur naturally, without being hampered by the movement of the injured area. Any increase in movement of an injured tissue results in increased circulation in the area, which can cause further damage and swelling of the injured tissue. However, many sports medicine professionals use the term “relative rest”, which means rest that allows recovery, but is not so restrictive that it compromises or slows recovery. The person should avoid activities that strain the injured area to the point of pain or slow or hinder healing. However, some gestures are helpful. Gentle, painless, range of motion, and basic isometric contractions of the joints and muscles surrounding an injury have been shown to accelerate healing.
I: (ice); Refers to the use of cold treatments, also known as cryotherapy, to treat acute injuries. Ice is recommended to minimize and reduce swelling and reduce pain. There are many ways to use cryotherapy at home. The most common and convenient is a simple plastic bag of crushed ice placed on a paper towel in the affected area. It is important to protect the skin and limit exposure to cold to 10 to 15 minutes. Open cycles of 10 to 15 minutes and closed cycles of 1 to 2 hours are generally considered to be more effective and safer than prolonged continuous ice application.
Skin sensitization or allergy to cold exposure may occur. It can appear as spotted, red and raised skin where ice comes into contact with the skin. If this happens, ice treatments should be discontinued.
C: (Compression) Bandaging; When the ice pack is removed, a compression dressing should be applied to the injured area. The compression dressing acts as a mechanical barrier so swelling in the injured area is minimized. It is the use of a compression wrap, such as an elastic bandage, to apply an external force to the injured tissue. This compression minimizes swelling and provides light support.
E: (Elevation); Height is recommended to help reduce fluid buildup in the injured joint. The elevation is accomplished by positioning the injured area above heart level. If possible, during bedtime, ascending and placing the injured limb on extra pillows for sleep is probably most effective in the first 24 to 48 hours. If there is significant swelling that persists after 24 to 48 hours, or if the swelling recurs during healing, it is appropriate to continue to rise periodically.