According to the definition of the World Health Organization, obesity (overweight); It is an excessive accumulation of fat in the body that can negatively affect health. In other words, it occurs when the calories taken with foods are more than the calories consumed and this excess energy is stored as fat in the body. It is one of the most important health problems in the world today. Considering the data of 1975, it is seen that the frequency of obesity is three times higher today. According to the data of 2016, 650 million people aged 18 and over are obese.
Obesity; In addition to many health problems such as hypertension, diabetes, sleep apnea, cardiovascular diseases, it negatively affects the quality of life and can cause psychological discomfort to people. At the same time, there are studies showing that it increases the risk of stroke. difficulty in breathing, shortness of breath during walking, increasing body weight day by day, and frequent headaches, especially in the morning, are among the most important symptoms of obesity.
How is Obesity Test Done?
Obesity can be diagnosed by looking at the percentage of fat in the body. 20-25% of the body weight of women in healthy individuals; 15-18% of men are adipose tissue. These fat percentages of 25% in women; An increase of 30% in men is an indicator of obesity. Body mass index is also one of the most important symptoms of obesity. Dividing the body weight in kilograms by the square of height in meters (kg / m2) gives the body mass index. Body mass index over 25 is obese; 30 and over is defined as obese. According to the data of 2016, 39% of the world population aged 18 and over is overweight and 13% is obese. Again, according to 2016 data, 340 million children between the ages of 5 and 19; 41 million children under the age of 5 fall into the overweight or obese category. In this period when obesity is increasing rapidly and is one of the most important health problems of our day, it is important for body health in both childhood and adulthood periods to control body weight, measure body mass index and keep fat percentages within normal ranges.
Your BMI is......
Body Mass Index
less than 18.5: Underweight
18.5 - 24.9: Normal weight
25 - 29.9: Overweight
30 - 34.9: Class I Obese
35 - 39.9: Class II Obese
40 upwards: Class III Obese
Your BMI is......
What are the causes of obesity?
Obesity can occur from childhood. Childhood eating habits, types of foods consumed and diet form the basis of food consumption and nutritional order in adulthood. In our age, many factors such as the rapid development of technology, the differentiation of living conditions and lack of time are effective in the diet. The most important causes of obesity are:
1. Eating too much calories
Among the causes of obesity, eating more calories is in the first place. The total calories of the foods consumed during the day have increased today compared to the previous generations. According to a study conducted in the USA, women consumed an average of 1540 calories per day in 1971; In 2014, it was seen that this number increased to 1870 calories. The daily diet of men, which was 2450 calories in 1971, increased to 2600 calories in 2014.
As a factor in this situation, the decrease in consumption frequency of home meals, more preference of ready-made foods, higher consumption of beverages with high calorie and sugar content, more fast-food style foods cause an increase in daily calories. The types of fat consumed, the methods of preparation of meals, and encouraging children to consume foods called junk food, especially advertisements on TV and internet, can be shown among the reasons for high-calorie nutrition.
Healthy Nutrition Diets
2. Sedentary Lifestyle
Inactive lifestyle ranks second among the causes of obesity. Lack of physical activity, desk work environments, not doing regular sports, preferring vehicles such as subways and buses and neglecting walking causes the daily intake of energy to be consumed and excess calories turn into fat in the body, causing weight gain. Spending a long time in front of television, computer, tablet and phone in childhood has a great effect on the development of obesity in these periods and in later ages.
Healthy Living Exercises
- Golden Rules For Losing Regional Weight
- Best And Effective Ways To Lose Belly Fat
- At Home Tightening and Fat Burning Exercises
3. Insufficient sleep time
Insufficient sleep and sleep patterns are the third causes of obesity. Studies have found that insufficient sleep increases the risk of obesity twice. Sleep patterns also affect the hormone levels secreted from the body. Insomnia is effective in the formation of obesity by affecting appetite metabolism. The leptin hormone, which sends the brain feeling full, is secreted less in insomnia, and this causes an increase in appetite. It is stated that an average of 6-7 hours of sleep a day will be sufficient. It is stated that sleep should not be less than 5 hours and more than 11 hours.
4. Obesity gene
Genetic factors take the fourth place among the causes of obesity. There are studies showing that there may be a link between binge eating and the gene called FTO. It has been observed that adolescents with the FTO gene have 20-30% more eating and obesity. At the same time, it has been determined that the feeling of fullness occurs later in these people. Today, more studies are needed on the effects of the FTO gene.
How Is Obesity Treatment?
Today, there are many methods for obesity treatment. Diet therapy, behavioral change therapy, obesity surgery and drugs and weight loss are the most preferred of these methods.
1. Slimming with diet
The most natural and must-have method for obesity treatment is to lose weight with healthy obesity diet programs. Slimming with a correct diet program is the most preferred and healthy method for losing weight. Obesity diet plans contain adequate protein, carbohydrate, fat, vitamin and mineral resources, and it is important for both body health and burning excess fat in the body.
Consuming sufficient nutrients is an important element for permanent weight loss. Detox plans consisting of fruit or vegetable juices applied for a short time can also be effective in weight loss. However, it should be noted how many days these detox plans are applied in order to maintain body health and to maintain weight loss. Instead of detox plans that contain liquid detox drinks at all meals, it is healthier to apply programs that include detox drinks in only 1 meal.
2. Behavior change therapy
The second place in obesity treatment methods is to change behavior. Behavior change is one of the most important factors in the permanent treatment. It is aimed to change the lifestyle of the person, to determine the reasons for the tendency to overeat and to change these wrong habits. Changing wrong eating habits ensures that the weight lost is not regained. At the same time, the person has the opportunity to observe himself and more attention is paid to the foods consumed. It is a change in nutrition and habits instead of applying a strict obesity diet program.
3. Obesity surgery
Surgical method is in the third line for obesity treatment. Surgical method has started to be preferred widely today. This method should be preferred as a last resort after applying various obesity diet plans for obesity treatment and without getting results. It should not be forgotten that there may be side effects as well as positive results and various symptoms may occur in the organs. Gastric banding, bypass, gastric balloon and stomach reduction are among the bariatric surgical methods and are applied to reduce the absorption of nutrients. It is a method mostly applied for aesthetic purposes to remove body fat. If the diet does not change after these methods are applied, the weight lost is likely to be recovered in a short time.
4. Drug therapy
Drug therapy ranks fourth for obesity treatment. The widespread use of social media and easy access to information can have benefits as well as harms. The most obvious example of this situation is the increase in the use of products sold under the name of slimming pills and slimming teas. The most correct and healthy weight loss method is the change of wrong eating habits and the implementation of appropriate obesity diet plans. Teas and medicines used unconsciously can damage many organs, especially kidneys. Negative health problems such as palpitations, heart attacks, high blood pressure can be seen. These health problems can also result in death.
How Obesity Patients Weak?
The most healthy and permanent weight loss method is the application of the right nutrition plan and the personalized obesity diet. In addition to the obesity diet plan applied, regular exercise and water consumption should not be neglected. When all these elements occur together, the excess amount of fat may decrease. Dietary habits and behavioral changes must be changed for weight loss to occur.
- Foods that are excessively fatty, spicy, frozen, pickled, fried and in fast food style should not be consumed.
- Vegetable dishes with olive oil; Meat or chicken dishes should be cooked in their own fat without adding oil.
- When cooking protein sources such as meat, chicken and fish, grill, oven or steaming methods should be preferred instead of frying. Consumption of delicatessen products such as bacon, soudjouk, salami and sausage should be avoided.
- Shelled nuts such as walnuts, almonds and hazelnuts, which are a source of omega-3 and also give a feeling of satiety, can be consumed with snacks. However, portion control should be paid attention to since these foods contain high calories when consumed in excess.
- Sufficient amount of water should be drunk and fat source foods such as olive oil, sunflower oil and hazelnut oil should be consumed in order to avoid digestive problems such as constipation and weight loss.
- Salads made of seasonal greens should be available at noon and in the evening. Olive oil and freshly squeezed lemon juice can be added to these salads.
- Water consumption is important for the feeling of fullness during the day. When insufficient water is drunk, the body perceives this situation as hunger and causes excessive food consumption. Therefore, an average of 8-10 glasses of water a day should be drunk.
- Foods such as cinnamon stick, lemon, parsley, fresh mint and cloves can be added to an average of 1 liter of water to accelerate metabolism and reduce edema.
- Instead of white bread, brown bread varieties rich in B group vitamins such as whole wheat, rye and bran bread should be consumed in order to keep the feeling of satiety long and blood sugar not to fall early.
- Imbalances in insulin resistance or blood sugar seen in diabetes can be corrected by adding powdered cinnamon to milk, yogurt or fresh fruit.
- Instead of ready-made or freshly squeezed fruit juices in the diet, the fruit itself should be consumed. The calories of 1 cup of fruit juice are 2-3 times higher than 1 serving of fruit. Instead of fruit juices, the fruit itself should be consumed in order to control calories and take fiber-source foods.
How Should the Obesity Diet Be?
For the obesity diet, the blood test results should be checked during the treatment phase of the patients. A weight loss diet suitable for these blood values should be applied. Health problems such as diabetes, thyroid diseases, PCOS, iron deficiency and high cholesterol have their own diets. There are varieties of foods that should and should not be consumed. The type of food consumed by each individual, their eating habits and the number of meals differ. In order for the diet to be sustainable, a nutrition plan suitable for these characteristics should be prepared. The diet plan prepared must be individual. In order to get accurate results, the diet list should be prepared according to the age, height, gender, weight and physical activity level of the person. Eating a very low or high calorie diet affects the working rate of metabolism and can negatively affect the weight loss process. Therefore, the total calories taken during the day should be suitable for the needs of the person.
Diet plans can consist of 3 main meals, 2 or 3 snacks. Meal times and intervals should be prepared in accordance with the person’s diet. The types of foods included in the diet list may differ depending on the health status of the person. For example, protein and carbohydrate sources should be consumed together in snacks of individuals with diabetes or insulin resistance; Individuals with polycystic ovaries should prefer more metabolism-accelerating foods; Individuals with goiter disease should stay away from goitrogenic foods. It should not be forgotten that diet lists should also differ according to different health conditions and physical characteristics.
The Harms of Obesity
- It is a known medical data that obesity increases the risks of heart disease, hypertension, heart attack and stroke.
- Cancer: The frequency of some cancer types increases in obesity. It increases the risk of esophageal, thyroid, colon and renal cancers in men. In women, the incidence of endometrium, gallbladder, esophagus and renal cancers increases in obese individuals. It is also associated with breast cancer in Asia-Pacific populations.
- One of the most known negative effects of obesity is that it causes a certain damage to the joints, especially the knees. This can increase the risk of osteoarthritis over time.
- Obesity may lead to the formation of gallstones: Since the amount of cholesterol in the gallbladder is higher than bile acid in obese people, the risk of gallstone formation may increase.
- Obesity can cause the patient’s breathing to narrow: Difficulty in breathing and sleep apnea (cessation of breathing for a certain period during sleep) or snoring problems are common health problems.
- It is among the known factors that obesity causes changes in the hormonal balance in men and women and can affect reproductive health negatively. Testosterone production is increased in obese patients associated with abdominal fat. Therefore, hirsutism (hair growth) and menstrual irregularities can be seen. Sexual arousal and orgasm problems are more common in overweight and obese women. In men, obesity is an independent risk factor for erectile dysfunction (problems with penile hardening).
- Obesity and weight gain in adult life increase the risk of kidney stones. Overweight and obesity in women are important risk factors for urinary incontinence (urinary incontinence).
- Obesity may cause some problems during pregnancy: The risk of some pregnancy-related disorders is higher in those who have a fat pregnancy than women with a normal weight.
- Obesity is also associated with psychosocial problems and depression. The social pressure related to weight loss from the environment or the patient’s discomfort due to their weight increases the risk of depression in obese people. Psychological problems (Anorexia neurosis or Blumia neurosis, Binge eating, binge eating, night eating syndrome may occur)
- Obesity increases the risks in all kinds of surgeries.